fiber burn test results

Fiber Burning Test | The Method & Results

What Is Textile Fiber Burning Test?

The burning test is a good preliminary test for categorizing fibres. Observation of burning provides information on behavior in a flame, smoke generation, odor during burning, and ash or residue. It never should be used as the only method of identifying a fibre, but it provides valuable information that may be used with other evidence to make a positive identification of an unknown fibre.

Blends of fibres are difficult to test using this procedure. The reaction of the predominant fibre may mask the presence of a second fibre, which could have entirely different burning characteristics. Finishes, especially flameretardant finishes, can also give misleading information. Although the test is easy to perform, it does involve the use of an open flame, making it necessary to observe certain safety precautions. Use a small flame source in an area where there is no danger of igniting other materials. A candle in a stable base or a small alcohol lamp is preferable to a hand-held match. A nonflammable pad should be used under the burning material to provide protection from molten drip and smoldering ash. Do not touch ash or tweezers while they are still hot.

The Method of Fiber Burning Test

The sample to be tested should be in fibre form. A single yarn from a woven or knitted fabric should be untwisted to produce a tuft of fibres for testing. Use the following instructions, and observe the reactions of the burning fibre very carefully.

1. Hold the tuft of fibres with a pair of tweezers.

2. Move the tuft close to the side of the flame; do not place the fibres above or below the flame. Observe carefully to see if the fibres melt, shrink, or draw away from the flame.

3. Slowly move the fibre tuft into the flame to observe its burning behavior, and then slowly and carefully remove the tuft from the flame to observe the reaction once the flame source is no longer present. Careful observation provides an answer to these four questions:

(a) When introduced to the flame, does the fibre burn rapidly or slowly, or does it show no sign of ignition?
(b) Does the material begin to melt?
(C) Does the material produce a sputtering flame, a steady flame, or no flame at all?
(d) When the fibre is removed from the flame, does it continue to burn, or does it selfextinguish?

4. If the material is still burning when it is removed from the flame, blow out the flame. Note the odor and colour of the smoke, or note that no smoke was produced when the fibre was removed from the flame.

5. Observe the residue remaining after burning. Does a residue drop from the tweezers? Does that residue continue to burn? How much residue is left? Does the residue remain red, indicating that it is still very hot? What colour is the ash that remains? Is the ash the shape of the fibre, light and fluffy, or is it bead-shaped?

6. After it cools off, touch the residue or ash. Is it soft or brittle? Can it be crushed easily between the fingers, or is it hard to crush?

Fiber Burn Test Results

There are some points that are must to keep in mind to analyze the results of fiber burning procedures and the outcome –

1. It is difficult to detect the presence of blends with a burning test, One fibre in a blend may completely mask the proper ties of another fibre.

2. Dyes and finishes affect test results. Flame retardant finishes are especially misleading.

3. Coloured fibres, especially those produced with pigments, may retain the colour in the ash or residue.

Lets have a look on the image below. The results are inside of that –

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