This is comparatively the oldest spinning technique and is therefore also referred to as the classical or conventional process. Fibre material supply to the ring spinning machine is in the form of roving. Its fiber mass is reduced in a drafting unit. The twist inserted moves backward and reaches the fibres leaving the drafting unit. The fibers lay around one another in a helicoidal manner. The normal forces generated here
Principle of Ring Spinning
A driven spindle, on which the yarn package (tapered bobbin tube with yarn) firmly sits, is responsible for twist. Around the spindle is a stationary ring. Yarn from the drafting unit is drawn under a traveler (a small metal piece), freely moving on the ring, and then led to the yarn package. This traveler, lagging because of the yarn drag on it, is responsible for winding on the yarn. A controlled up and down movement of the ring determines the shape of the yarn package, called a cop or spinning bobbin.
With the ring spinning technique all known yarn counts can be spun and thus the entire count range is covered (0.3 Ne to 148 Ne or 4 tex to 2000 tex).
Compared to other spinning methods the ring spinning technique, however, has the lowest performance with a maximum of about 20 m/min. One significant reason for this is that the entire yarn package must insert the full amount of twist into the yarn; it therefore cannot become too large. I wist insertion and yarn wind-on take place in one continuous process. The method used for this leads to large yarn tensions and tension fluctuations with increasing package diameters and prevents the productions of large packages. Thus the running length of yarn on a cop is relatively short.