textile yarn

What Is Textile Yarn | Classifications in Detail

What Is Textile Yarn?

An assemblage of fibres that is twisted or laid together so as to form a continuous strand that can be made into a textile fabric. So a yarn is a strand of natural or man-made fibres or filaments that have been twisted or grouped together for use in weaving, knitting, or other methods of constructing textile fabrics. The type of yarn to be manufactured will depend on the fibers selected; the texture, or hand, of the fabric to be made; and qualities such as warmth, resiliency, softness, and durability required in the fabric’s end use.

Classification of Yarn

Yarns may be divided into three types according to their structure as follows:

Staple fiberyarns or Spun yarns (Single yarn):

Spun yarns are made by mechanical assembly and twisting together (spinning) of staple fibres. Ring spinning, Rotor spinning, Wrap spinning, Air-jet spinning etc. machines are used to produce this spun or single yarns.

Ply yarn:

Single yarns are used in the majority of fabrics for normal textile and clothing applications, but in order to obtain special yarn features, particularly high strength and modulus for technical and industrial applications, ply yarns are often needed. A folded or ply yarn is produced by twisting two or more single yarns together in one operation, and a cabled yarn is formed by twisting together two or more folded yarns or a combination of folded and single yarns. The twisting together of several single yarns increases the tenacity of the yarn by improving the binding in of the ffiberson the outer layers of the component single yarns. Ply yarns are also more regular, smoother and more hard wearing. The direction of twisting is designated as S or Z, just as in single yarns. Normally the folding twist is in the opposite direction to that of the single yarns.

Filament yarns:

A filament yarn is made from one or more continuous strands called filaments where each component filament runs the whole length of the yarn. Those yarns composed of one filament are called monofilament yarns, and those containing more filaments are known as multifilament yarns. For apparel applications, a multifilament yarn may contain as few as two or three filaments or as many as 50 filaments. In carpeting, for example, a filament yarn could consist of hundreds of filaments. Most manufactured fibres have been produced in the form of a filament yarn. Silk is the only major natural filament yarn.

According to the shape of the filaments in the yarn, filament yarns are classified into two types, flat and bulk. The filaments in a flat yarn lie straight and neat, and are parallel to the yarn axis. Thus, flat filament yarns are usually closely packed and have a smooth surface. The bulked yarns, in which the filaments are either crimped or entangled with each other, have a greater volume than the flat yarns of the same linear density Texturing is the main method used to produce the bulked filament yarns. A textured yarn is made by introducing durable crimps, coils, and loops along the length of the filaments. As textured yarns have an increased volume, the air and vapour permeability of fabrics made from them is greater than that from applications where low air permeability is required, such as the fabrics for air bags, flat yarns may be a better choice. Textured yarns are used for Stockings and tights,flat yarns. However, for swimwear, sportswear, outerwear, underwear, carpets, sewing and overedge stitching threads for extensible fabrics.

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